Boron carbide is a highly hard ceramic material. This ceramic material can be used to make tank armor, industrial armor, as well as body armor. It ranks fifth in the hardest material list after diamonds and cubic boron nutride, fullerene complexes and monofilaments. It was first discovered by metalboride researchers in the 19thcentury. Scientifically, this material was not known until the 1930s. Boron carbide is made by reacting borontrioxide to carbon in an electrical furnace.
Instructions for making Boron Carbide
A variety of reaction principles, various raw materials and equipment determine which preparation methods are best for Boron Carbide.
High Temperature Self-Propagating Synthesis
For self-propagating high temperatures synthesis, you need a very low reaction temperature. This allows for maximum utilization of heat from compounding to carry out the reaction.
One of the advantages of self-propagating high temperatures synthesis methods is its speed, simplicity, and energy-saving. Some disadvantages of the method include an uneven reaction, wide particle size distribution and inconsistent results. The residual magnesium oxide, even if pickedled, is not easy to totally remove. It also has a large influence on particle size for the boron carbonide.
A carbon tube furnace or electric furnace with carbothermal reduced
The most popular method for producing boron caride in industrial scale is called carbothermal. Boric acid or boric hydride can be mixed with carbon, then put in a carbon tube furnace. Carbon is also used as an reducing agent.
Different operating principles apply to the graphite electrode. A vertical curing furnace as well as a horizontal processing oven can each be made from the electric furnace. The graphite electrode of the vertical process furnace has a deep arc, the high temperature area in the hightemperature processing zone and is fully cure.
Chemical vapor deposition
Chemical vapor Deposition Method can be broken down into several processes. These include hot wire method or thermal chemical vap phase reaction method. Laser induced vapor vapor method. Synchronous heating irradiation and other methods are also possible.
The advantages of chemical vapor deposited include low pollution, high purity of boron carbonide powder and similar, however, production is slow. Additionally, there are high demands on equipment and high production prices due to the use gas phase hazardous materials. This makes chemical vapor-deposition not suitable to mass produce boron carbonide.
You can prepare it by mixing boron, carbon, and passing through a protective agent. Then, you react at high temperature to create boron carbide. Its chemical reaction formula is 4B+C=B 4C. Fu Bo et al. It was possible to directly produce boron carbide powder from boron and carbon. While the prepared boron carbide powder is highly purified and it’s easy to regulate the carbon/boron ratio using this method, its preparation cost can be quite high.
The purpose of air jet-pulverization is to fortify the coarse powder by using both surface pulverization (volume pulverization) and pulverization. Yin Bangyue et.al. Generally the coarse powder is pulverized for three times to produce boron carbide powder that has an average particle diameter less than one-half of a millimeter. Shampa Mondal was able to create ultrafine powders of boron caride with less than one millimeter in size. In order to synthesize boron, we first created a polymer precursor with boric and polyvinylalcool. This was then broken down at 400-800°C for obtaining boron.
The sol gel method involves the solidification of an inorganic substance, such as a metal alkoxide, by solution, gel or sol. Heat treatment is used to make a compound. By studying different carbon sources, Sinha et al. Sinha et.al.. studied different carbon sources and found that boric, citric, and acetic acids form stable and transparent gold yellow gels at pH=23. They keep this mixture for about two hours at 1000 to 1450°C under vacuum. From there they produce boron caride fine powder with an average particle width of 2.25m.
The sol gel method offers many benefits, such as a lower reaction temperature, uniform carbon-boron mixing, reduced loss of boron from source, smaller particle sizes of synthesized and manufactured boron carbide, and low reaction time. Unfortunately, it’s difficult for the boride from boron to be gelled with other substances.
One way to make boron carbonide is by using a solution of an alkali metal in a liquid. Shi et al. Na was used in the reduction agent. BBr 3and CCl 4 were added as reactants. They then heated up at 400°C for a powder of boron carbide. Gu et al. Li was employed as a reduction agent and Li and CCl 4 used as reactants. The ultrafine powder of boron carbide was prepared in high pressure at 600°C.
This low-temperature method allows for the synthesis and ultrafine grinding of boron.
A mechanochemical procedure
This new method uses the mechanical method to produce boron carbide. It utilizes boron dioxide powder, magnesium powder, and graphite as raw materials. You can make a mixture of diffusion and reaction at room temp. For boron-carbidide powder, you can infuse a chemical react at a slightly higher temperature than that. Tang Huaguo et al. This was accomplished by controlling the proportions of boron powder, graphite and magnesium powder to create boron caride powder at low temperatures.
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