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How to prepare MAX phase ceramic materials?

Procedures to prepare MAX Phase Materials
MAX phases materials can have many preparation techniques. The synthesis process can vary depending on what morphologies are used. MAX Phase materials can be described as massive, finely powdered or thin film.
Production of MAX-phase bulk materials
Chemical vapour desposition (CVD), is the first method of preparing bulk MAX phase materials. CVD technology involves higher synthesis temperatures, lower production costs, and lower productivity. These are the reasons why hot isostatic sintering technology emerged later. Pampuch et al. The bulk Ti3SiC22 was made by hot isostatic presses sintering. The production cycle may be shorter but impurities such as TiC are not difficult to obtain and there is no high purity. Until 1996, Barsoum et al. High purity Ti3SiC2 has been prepared by hot pressing. Spark plasma sintering, which is a method of increasing production efficiency, has again been developed. Although sintering can be done in the same way as hot pressing, there is less need for raw materials.

The industrial scale production of pressureless is easier than with other methods. It is common to perform mechanical pretreatment prior to using pressureless. This process is not without its imperfections. Sun et. al. Al was added by pressureless-sintering which increased the material’s density.
The preparation of MAX powder phase materials
Powdered MAX materials were prepared using the earliest known method of preparing them, which was the oxidation reaction. Following further research, it was found that the solid liquid reaction method is more suitable.

A oxidation process is the first method to prepare powdery MAX material. After more research, it was found that the solid liquid reaction method is more appropriate.

Racault et al. Racault, who had studied the powder MAX phases earlier, put T powder, Si and C powders with a specific molar ratio inside a vacuum silicone tube. Then, they heated it for 10 hours at approximately 1100°C. This solid phase reaction produced Ti3SiC2, W2Si2Si2Si2 and TIC. TiSi2 impurities can be removed by HF gases after the mixture is prepared. TiSi2 can then be oxidized for 10h in air at 45°C. Concentrated sulfuric Acid is used for the removal of the TiO from the reaction. This will give rise to the MAX powder which can be pure up to 95%.
Yang et al. These factors had an impact on how MAX phases were prepared by manipulating different powder proportions, temperature and holding times. Yang et. al. To obtain MAX phases powders that are more pure than 99wt% the ratio of Si powder, Ti powder, TiC had to be adjusted at 1 ( Vacuum insulation of 2h at 1250°C1300C. In addition, Yang et al. For high-purity MAX Phase materials of very high purity, C and Si powders were replaced with polycarbosilane.
Preparation for thin film MAX Phase materials
By chemical vapor dipping, the MAX phase material was first made film-like. Nicki I made thin Ti Sic2 Sic2 films with CVD in 1972. No single phase of the film was created. Physical Vapour Deposition is the best method for preparing thin film MAX phases. Using magnetron sputtering technology, Palmquist et al. Ti Sic 2 thin films could be prepared by using magnetron sputtering technology. This was achieved at 900 C with three-source copulator co-sputtering. You can use the high speed oxidation jet as well as the cathode-pulse arc to prepare this material.
Results show that materials can not be prepared when the temperature drops below 473K. A low temperature nanofilm is still possible, provided the temperatures are not below 473K. Material has excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance, as well as strong conductivity.
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