A type of functional material known as shape memory alloy has high strength and corrosion resistance. It is also non-toxic, biocompatibility, and potential medical applications. It can only be deformed by Nitinol in its low temperature phase and can then recover the original shape that it was created by the mother. It has an expansion rate of more than 20%, a fatigue life up to 107 times and damping characteristics that are superior than others.
Nitinol Wire classification
1. In 1940, there was gold bow wire (cobalt-chromium alloy wire) and stainless steel circle wire (steel round wire).
2. Martensite stabilized alloys were first created in 1960. These alloys consisted mainly of nickel-titanium and had been formed by deformation within the martensite state. This arch wire is flexible and produces a lighter correction force.
3. In 1980, both the Chinese nickel titanium and Japanese nickel titanium alloy alloy archwires were austenite activated. This meant that they could show austenite in any state and did not exhibit temperature-induced Martensite when placed within or outside of the mouth.
4. Martensite activated nickel–titanium alloy was discovered in 1990. It has a TTR lower than or very near to the oral cavities temperature.
5. Gradedthermodynamic (Higher thermodynamic nickel/titanium alloy): When the TTR temperature rises above the oral temperature (about 40 degC), the TTR temperature remains higher than the temperature in the cavity. This means that the nickel-titanium arwire placed in the cavities is in a multicomponent state, and is very soft.
Nitinol can be used in clinical applications
1. It’s used to align and level the patient’s dentition early. Nitinol’s shape-memory and superelasticity of Nitinol Arch wires make them a common part of clinical practice.
2. Nitinol extensions springs, push springs and Nitinol pull springs are orthodontic springs. They can be used to treat orthodontic problems such as opening up gaps between teeth or pulling teeth in different ways.
3. Dr. Soma in Japan has developed the LH-arch wire. LH stands for Low Hysteresis. It is the name of the arch wire that’s ligated to the bracket. Very little is the difference in stress between when the archwire slowly returns to its original position after the tooth has been moved.
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