Two-dimensional single-layer graphene is made up of just one layer of carbon. Because of the sp2 covalent link between every carbon atom, it is both the stiffest and thinnest material in existence (it has a fracture strength that is 200 times higher than steel). It can be seen through almost completely and absorbs just 2.3% of the light. The thermal conductivity for graphene is 5300 W/m. K is greater than that of carbon nanotubes or diamond. Its resistivity, which is 0.96×10-6 O.cm, is the lowest among all metals. The specific area of graphene is 2630 m2/g. The unusual characteristic of graphene lies in its absence of doping. It is found when the conduction bands and the valence bands are connected. This point has an electron’s equivalent mass equal to zero. The carrier is a Dirac of zero masses. Excellent carrier conduction characteristics are found in Fermions. They can have a current density as high as 108A/cm2 but up to 200,000 cm2/V. Carrier mobility is s which is higher than that of silicon crystals and carbon nanotubes. Its speed is also 1/300th the speed of light. Graphene has conductivity s=e2/h. Room temperature Hall effects expand the original temperature range ten-fold, which gives it unique characteristics. It also has excellent electrical quality. The unique electronic structure in graphene makes it possible to confirm relativistic quantum electromagnetic effects, which are difficult to observe in particle physics.
Graphene is an excellent material for nanoelectronics. Graphene devices are much smaller than those made from other materials and can transmit electrons more quickly. Because graphene has a high electron transmission speed, excellent electron transmission characteristics and no scattering it can produce high frequency transistors (upto THz). The graphene structure remains stable even when there is one hexagonal ring. This makes it a very important material for molecular level electronic device development. Single-electronic components prepared by electron beam printing and etching technology may break through the limits of traditional electronic technology, and have excellent application prospects in the fields of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, memory, and sensors, and are expected to be the development of ultra-high-speed computer chips. This breakthrough could also be a major step forward in medical technology.
A single-layer graphene film can be used for microscopic filtering that breaks down gases. Medical research will benefit greatly from this thin film of graphene with only one atom thickness. This allows for the observation of molecules and their analysis using electron microscopes. Graphene emits an external noise signal to detect gases. It can also accurately identify individual molecules of gas, which could have potential uses in chemical sensors or molecular probes.
Because of the outstanding characteristics of single-layer graphene, in terms of electrical, thermal, mechanical properties, it’s widely used in the area of semiconductor electronic package.
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