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The Properties and Multi-band Superconductivity of Magnesium Boride

What does magnesium boride mean?

Magnesium boride (MgB2) is an electronic compound with hexagonal crystal structures. This compound is intercalated and has layers of magnesium, boron and other elements.

Researchers discovered that the superconductor magnesium diboride can transform from an inconspicuous substance to a more obvious one in 2001. This temperature is close to 40K, or -233degC. This superconductor’s transition temperature, which is close to the one of its counterparts of the same kind, is about twice as high. Its actual temperature is between 20 and 30K. This temperature can be reached using liquid neon, liquid hydrogen, or closed cycle refrigerators. These are much simpler than cooling niobium alloys (K) using liquid helium. If magnesium boride is doped in carbon or any other impurities it can keep superconductivity the same as that of niobium alloys, or better, when there’s a magnetic field passing through. There are many potential uses for magnesium boride, including power transmission lines, superconducting magnets and sensitive magnetic fields detectors.

Superconductivity research in multi-bands

A common trait in metal materials is multi-band or multi-Fermi noodles. The material will enter the superconducting phase when it opens the Fermi layer. This means that multiple energy bands may result in multiple energy gaps. Due to strong inter-band scattering, many superconducting materials will weaken the multiband effect. However, in some superconducting materials with quasi-two-dimensional characteristics, multi-band and multi-gap effects will appear due to the orthogonality of the electron motion wave functions above different energy bands. Multiband effects have also been observed in recently-discovered iron-based superconductors. This research area is an important one in superconducting material and physics.

The multi-band, superconductor Magnesium Diboride is an example. The superconductor has one electron-type, one-hole p and two hole-type bands. Due to the special configuration of the Fermi surface (the p band is three-dimensional and the s band is quasi-two-dimensional), its The wave vectors of electrons in different energy bands are in an orthogonal state, so that the inter-band scattering is not very strong, which makes the superconductor’s multi-band characteristics outstanding. Hall effect, which can reveal information about the carrier count and scattering rate in cyclotron motion is an effective tool for magnetoresistance. The combination of magnetoresistance, Hall effect and other methods can be used to deduce electron scattering rates for different energy bands.

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