Nanopowder may also be known as nanoparticles. It refers to extremely fine particles with an average size of 1-100nm. Others call them ultrafine particle. Their size is greater than that of atom clusters but less than ordinary particles. It can take a number of forms, such as rod, plate, rod or sponge. There are many different compounds that can make up nanoparticles.
Properties and Nanoparticles
1. It is important to understand the thermal characteristics
They have lower melting points and temperatures that are sinterable than standard powders. Because of interface and surface effects, this is possible.
For example, 600k is the melting value of bulk Pb, but 288k can reduce the melting of 20nm diameter spherical pieces of Pb. At 373k nano-Ag particles start to melt, while conventional Ag melting point is higher at 1173k. Furthermore, nanoTiO2 becomes densified when heated above 773k. For large-grain samples to become densified, heat up to 873k.
2. Optical properties
Broadband, strong absorption
By reducing the size to nanoparticles it is almost impossible to see and its reflectance drops sharply.
Certain nanoparticles can be compared to silicon dioxide, SiC, and alumina. They have a broad energy absorption spectrum in the infrared. ZnO (ferric oxide), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles all have a wide energetic absorption spectrum in ultraviolet light.
Both blue and red shift
Nanoparticles exhibit a higher absorption rate than bulk materials. If the particle’s size is less than 0.1 mm, then the absorption frequency shifts to long wavelength.
3. Chemical properties
You can use it as a catalyst because of the surface effect.
Application to nanoparticles
1. Nano coating
Nano-coating uses surface technology to apply part or all of the nano-powder-containing material to the substrate. Nano powder’s surface property allows for new design possibilities.
For example, nanoparticles can become surface coatings. They will alter optical properties such as light reflection, optical nonlinearity, light absorption and light transmission. These nanoparticles are great for the lighting industry. A high-pressure sodium lamp converts 69% of its electricity into infrared Rays. Very little visible light remains. Also, the lamp’s life span will decrease if heated.
People have been studying the nano-infrared layer. A nano-powder made of silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and iron oxide has been combined. This can absorb intense infrared rays and can then be made into military clothing. It will not be detected by hostile hot bands, and it can also reduce your weight by 30%.
2. In environmental protection
A lack of minerals and pollution are two major problems facing humanity. It has been an exciting time for the application of nanomaterials in pollution reduction, environmental governance, as well as environmental protection. These nanoparticles have many benefits, including being antibacterial, anticorrosive or deodorant. These nanoparticles also can absorb heavy metalions for purification of water.
3. Photocatalysis with nanoparticles
It can also be used for organic matter degradation, environmental protection, and the degrading of pesticides. Photocatalysis has high efficiency due to its small particles and specific surface. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of nanoparticles is high.
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