The advantages of graphite cathode materials
Graphite, an allotrope carbon, is closely related to each other. Graphite has the highest stability of carbon. It is highly resistant to heat and corrosion and has excellent electrical and thermoconductive properties. It is also lighter than aluminum. In addition to its use as a catalyst material for lithium-ion cells, graphite has many other uses. Graphite has been a major commercially available cathode material of lithium ion batteries due to its benefits of high electronic conductivity.
How to obtain graphite, and how to modify graphite anode substances
You can get graphite in two different ways. One is by mining the ore; the other is by synthesising coal tar. The lithium-ion batteries’ graphite is made by mixing 55% of synthetic graphite with 45 percent natural graphite. Because the electrolyte solvent molecules are very sensitive to graphite and can cause many dangerous reactions, graphite used in lithium-ion batteries should be modified. Presently, graphite has been spheroidized more, and is also surface-treated and doped modified.
1. Flake graphite has low specific capacites due to its anisotropy. Flake graphite can be spherified to increase its specific capacity, efficiency in the first cycle, and performance when cycling. The wind impact shaping machine is used to spheroidize the material in the industrial process.
2. The disordered carbon atoms present on the natural graphite surface can be removed by oxidation so that the REDOX reaction can occur uniformly. Surfaces are formed by covalently bonding functional groups, such as -COO and -OH. These functional groups are capable of forming stable and bonding SEI membranes, which can increase the lifetime.
3. Fluorination is used to create the C-f structure on top of natural graphite. This treatment improves the structural stability of graphite, and helps prevent graphite flakes from falling during the cycle.
4. A coating modification is made using graphite as a core and coating the surface with amorphous or metallic carbon material. The diffusion of Li+ can be improved by using amorphous material. It also improves the charge-discharge property of graphite with high current.
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